Compound in grapes, red wine could be key to beat prostate cancer
Resveratrol, a compound found commonly in grape skins and red wine, can make prostate tumour cells more susceptible to radiation treatment, increasing the chances of a full recovery from all types of prostate cancer, including aggressive tumours, a University of Missouri researcher has discovered.
The compound has been previously shown to have several beneficial effects on human health, including cardiovascular health and stroke prevention.
"Other studies have noted that resveratrol made tumour cells more susceptible to chemotherapy, and we wanted to see if it had the same effect for radiation therapy," said Michael Nicholl, an assistant professor of surgical oncology in the MU School of Medicine.
"We found that when exposed to the compound, the tumour cells were more susceptible to radiation treatment, but that the effect was greater than just treating with both compounds separately," he stated.
Prostate tumour cells contain very low levels of two proteins, perforin and granzyme B, which can function together to kill cells. However, both proteins need to be highly "expressed" to kill tumour cells.
In his study, when Nicholl introduced resveratrol into the prostate tumour cells, the activity of the two proteins increased greatly. Following radiation treatment, Nicholl found that up to 97 percent of the tumour cells died, which is a much higher percentage than treatment with radiation alone.
"It is critical that both proteins, perforin and granzyme B, are present in order to kill the tumour cells, and we found that the resveratrol helped to increase their activity in prostate tumour cells," Nicholl said.
"Following the resveratrol-radiation treatment, we realized that we were able to kill many more tumour cells when compared with treating the tumour with radiation alone. It's important to note that this killed all types of prostate tumour cells, including aggressive tumour cells," he added.
Resveratrol is present in grape skins and red wine and available over-the-counter in many health food sections at grocery stores. However, the dosage needed to have an effect on tumour cells is so great that many people would experience uncomfortable side effects.
"We don't need a large dose at the site of the tumor, but the body processes this compound so efficiently that a person needs to ingest a lot of resveratrol to make sure enough of it ends up at the tumour site. Because of that challenge, we have to look at different delivery methods for this compound to be effective," Nicholl noted.
Nicholl said that the next step would be to test the procedure in an animal model before any clinical trials can be initiated.
His studies were published in the Journal of Andrology and Cancer Science.