States of India
Uttar Pradesh State Information
Capital : Lucknow
Languages: Hindi, Urdu, English
Uttar Pradesh has multicultural, multiracial, fabulous wealth
of nature-hills, valleys, rivers, forests, and vast plains. Viewed as the
largest tourist destination in India, Uttar Pradesh boasts of 35 million
domestic tourists. More than half of the foreign tourists, who visit India every
year, make it a point to visit this state of Taj and Ganga. Agra itself receives
around one million foreign tourists a year coupled with around twenty million
domestic tourists. Uttar Pradesh is studded with places of tourist attractions
across a wide spectrum of interest to people of diverse interests. The seventh
most populated state of the world, Uttar Pradesh can lay claim to be the oldest
seat of India's culture and civilization. It has been characterized as the
cradle of Indian civilization and culture because it is around the Ganga that
the ancient cities and towns sprang up. Uttar Pradesh played the most important
part in India's freedom struggle and after independence it remained the
strongest state politically.
Uttar Pradesh is between latitude 24°-31°N and longitude 77°-84°E. Area wise, it
is the fourth largest state of India.. The Gangetic Plain occupies three
quarters of the state. The entire state, except for the northern region, has a
tropical monsoon climate. In the plains, January temperatures range from
12.5°C-17.5°C and May records 27.5°-32.5°C, with a maximum of 45°C. Rainfall
varies from 1,000-2,000 mm in the east to 600-1,000 mm in the west.
Brief History of
The epics of Hinduism, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, were written in Uttar
Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh also had the glory of being home to Lord Buddha. It has
now been established that Gautama Buddha spent most of his life in eastern Uttar
Pradesh, wandering from place to place preaching his sermons. The empire of
Chandra Gupta Maurya extended nearly over the whole of Uttar Pradesh. Edicts of
this period have been found at Allahabad and Varanasi. After the fall of the
Mauryas, the present state of Uttar Pradesh was divided into four parts: Surseva,
North Panchal, Kosal, and Kaushambi.
The western part of Uttar Pradesh saw the advent of the Shaks
in the second century BC. Not much is known of the history of the state during
the times of Kanishka and his successors. The Gupta Empire ruled over nearly the
whole of Uttar Pradesh, and it was during this time that culture and
architecture reached its peak. The decline of the Guptas coincided with the
attacks of Huns from Central Asia who succeeded establishing their influence
right up to Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh.
The seventh century witnessed the taking over of Kannauj by Harshavardhana. In
1526, Babur laid the foundation of the Mughal dynasty. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi
in the battle of Panipat. Babar carried out extensive campaign in various parts
of Uttar Pradesh. He defeated the Rajputs near Fatehpur Sikri while his son
Humayun conquered Jaunpur and Ghazipur, after having brought the whole of Awadh
under his control. After Babur's death (1530), his son Humayun forfeited the
empire after being defeated at the hands of Sher Shah Suri at Kannauj.
After the death of Sher Shah Suri in 1545, Humayun once again
regained his empire but died soon after. His son Akbar proved to be the greatest
of Mughals. His established a unified empire over nearly the whole of the India.
During his period, Agra became the capital of India and became heartland of
culture and arts. Akbar constructed huge forts in Agra and Allahabad. The period
of Jahangir (after 1605) saw arts and culture reach a new high. In 1627, after
the death of Jahangir, his son Shahjahan ascended the throne. The period of
Shahjahan is known as the golden period of India in art, culture, and
architecture. It was during his reign that the classical wonder Taj Mahal was
built in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. The régime of Aurangzeb saw the peak
of Mughal Empire in terms of geographic expansion.
Modern-day Uttar Pradesh saw the rise of important freedom
fighters on the national scenario. Lal Bahadur Shastri, Jawaharlal Nehru, Smt.
Indira Gandhi, and Charan Singh were only a few of the important names who
played a significant role in India's freedom movement and also rose to become
the prime ministers of this great nation.
The current chief minister of Uttar Pradesh is Mulayam Singh Yadav, the leader
of the Samajwadi Party (Socialist Party). The major political parties in the
state are: Samajwadi Party, Bharatiya Janata Party, Bahujan Samaj Party and
Indian National Congress. No party has received a majority in the state's
Assembly since 1991 and the current administration (since 2003) has been held up
by smaller parties and independents.
Uttar Pradesh is made up of 70 administrative districts, which are grouped into
Agra Division-Agra, Aligarh, Etah, Firozabad, Mainpuri, Mahamaya Nagar (Hathras)
Allahabad Division-Allahabad, Kaushambi, Fatehpur and Pratapgarh,
Azamgarh Division-Azamgarh, Ballia, Mau,
Bareilly Division-Bareilly, Badaun, Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur
Basti Division-Basti, Siddharthnagar, Sant Kabir Nagar
Chitrakoot Division-Banda, Chitrakoot, Hamirpur, Mahoba
Devipatan Division-Gonda, Bahraich, Shravasti, Balrampur
Faizabad Division-Faizabad, Ambedkar Nagar, Barabanki, Sultanpur
Gorakhpur Division-Gorakhpur, Kushinagar (Padrauna), Devaria, Maharajganj,
Jhansi Division-Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpur,
Kanpur Division-Kanpur Nagar, Kanpur Dehat (Akbarpur District), Etawah,
Farrukhabad, Kannauj, Auraiya
Lucknow Division-Lucknow, Hardoi, Lakhimpur Kheri, Raebareli, Sitapur, Unnao
Meerut Division-Meerut, Bulandshahr, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Ghaziabad, Bagpat,
Mirzapur Division-Mirzapur, Sant Ravidas Nagar (Bhadohi District), Sonbhadra
Moradabad Division-Moradabad, Bijnor, Rampur, Jyotiba Phule Nagar
Saharanpur Division-Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar
Varanasi Division-Varanasi, Chandauli, Ghazipur, Jaunpur
Business & Economy of
Uttar Pradesh provides employment to nearly one-third of the state's total
workforce in its textiles and sugar-refining industries. Other prominent
industries in Uttar Pradesh include vegetable oil, jute, and cement.
The Union Government has established a number of large
factories that manufacture heavy equipment, machinery, steel, aircraft,
telephone, electronics equipment, and fertilizers. An oil refinery at Mathura
and the development of coalfields in the southeastern district of Mirzapur are
also major Union Government projects.
The state government promotes medium- and small-scale
industries. Agriculture is the mainstay of the state's economy. The chief crops
are rice, wheat, millet, barley, and sugarcane. Since the late 1960s, with the
introduction of high-yielding varieties of seed for wheat and rice, greater
availability of fertilizers, and increased use of irrigation, the state has
become the largest producer of food grains in the country.
Uttar Pradesh Travel Information
Uttar Pradesh can be easily considered as the nerve center of India and all the
images of India can be experienced here. This is the state that gave the world
Taj Mahal, the mascot for India; Varanasi, the spiritual hot spot; Sarnath,
where Buddha preached for the first time, and Mathura, the place so much
synonymous with the life and times of Lord Krishna. There are many Tourist
Attraction of Uttar Pradesh, which include Agra, Allahabad, Ayodhya, Deogarh,
Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, Kushinagar, Lucknow, Mathura, Sarnath, Sravasti, Varanasi,
Vrindavan, Bithoor, Kalinjar and Kannauj
Main rivers in Uttar Prdaesh are Alaknanda, Ramganga,
Bhagirathi, Yamuna & Ganga
The female literacy situation in Uttar Pradesh is dismal at 42.98%. However, the
male literacy rate is reasonably better at 70.23%. The overall literacy rate is
still poor at 57.36% and much lower than the all India average. The State
government has taken steps to make the population totally literate.
There are special programs like the World Bank aided DPEP.
Steps are being taken with the help of NGOs and other organizations to raise
participation. At the level of higher education and technical education Uttar
Pradesh has 16 general universities, famous among those are Lucknow University,
Uttar Pradesh Technical University (UPTU), Allahabad University, Madan Mohan
Malaviya Engineering College, Agra University, Banaras Hindu University,
Chaudhary Charan Singh University (Meerut), Aligarh Muslim University,
prestigious Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), Indian Institute of
Management (Lucknow), Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Indian Institute of
Information Technology (Allahabad), National Institute of Technology (Allahabad)
and large number of polytechnics, engineering institutes and industrial training
Uttar Pradesh is a gourmet's paradise. The cuisine consists of simple,
vegetables curries of all kinds. However, a whole lot of fried foods like the
kachori and puri, which are necessary during festivities, and the meat
delicacies of Awadh are world famous. A lot of emphasis is placed on savories
and sweetmeats in this state.
The range could be anything from mathris to jalebis. Lucknow
is also known worldwide for its biryanis and meat preparations.
Arts & Culture of
The population mostly comprises of an Indo-Dravidian ethnic group. Only a small
population, in the Himalayan region, displays Asiatic origins. Hindus constitute
more than 80 percent of the population, Muslims more than 15 percent, and other
religious communities include Sikhs, Christians, Jains, and Buddhists.
The handicrafts of Uttar Pradesh have earned a reputation for
themselves over the centuries. The traditional handicrafts are of a vast variety
such as textiles, metal ware, woodwork, ceramics, stonework, dolls, leather
products, ivory articles, papier-mâché, articles made of horns, bone, cane and
bamboo, perfume, and musical instrument. These cottage crafts are spread all
over the state but the more important centers are located at Varanasi, Aamgarh,
Maunath Bhanjan, Ghazipur, Meerut, Muradabad, and Agra.
Carpets from Bhadohi and Mirzapur are prized worldwide. Silks
and brocades of Varanasi, ornamental brassware from Muradabad, chickan (a type
of embroidery) work from Lucknow, ebony work from Nagina, glassware from
Firozabad, and carved woodwork from Saharanpur also are important. The
traditional pottery centers are located at Khurja, Chunar, Lucknow, Rampur,
Bulandshahr, Aligarh, and Azamgarh. Khurja's dishes, pitchers, and flower bowls
in blazed ceramic in blue, green, brown and orange colors are the most
Muradabad produces exquisite brass utility articles. Besides,
minakari on silver, gold, and diamond-cut silver ornaments have made Varanasi
and Lucknow world famous.
Music & Dance of
The state is known for pioneering the development of musical
instruments, which find mention in ancient Sanskrit literature. Music is also
known to have flourished in the Gupta Period (c. 320-540), and much of the
musical tradition in Uttar Pradesh was developed during the period.
The musicians Tansen and Baiju Bawra, two of the Navaratnas
(Nine Jewels) of the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar, are still immortal for
their contribution in the field of music.
The sitar (a stringed instrument of the lute family) and the
tabla (consisting of two small drums), the two most popular instruments of
Indian music, were developed in the region during this period.
The Kathak style of classical dance, which originated in
Uttar Pradesh in the 18th century as a devotional dance in the temples of
Vrindavan and Mathura, is the most popular form of classical dance in northern
There are also local songs and dances of the countryside, and
the most popular of the folksongs are seasonal. The songs and dances of the
countryside are significant features of local culture. They include the kajari
of Mirzapur and Varanasi; the Alha Udal, a folk epic; and various village
Uttar Pradesh has a long list of fairs and festivals. More
than 2,230 festivals are held annually. Some are organized at several places
simultaneously while others have only local importance.
Festivals and feasts are linked with the golden harvest - the
sensuous spring, the reverence for mythology, religion or in honor of the past
great men. These are zestfully celebrated with song, dance, and merriment;
others with solemnity, fervor, fast, or feast. These fairs and festivals help
the people keep the culture vibrant and promote artistic activities.
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