Jharkhand State Information
Capital : Ranchi
Languages: Hindi, Santhali and other tribal languages and English
Indian parliament passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill on August, 2, 2000 to create the state of Jharkhand. The state comprises of twenty-two districts of the erstwhile Bihar (eighteen at the time of bifurcation). With an area of 74,677 Sq km, the new state is bordered by Bihar, Chattisgarh, Orissa, and West Bengal to its north, west, south and east respectively. Around 35% of the population of former Bihar is in the Jharkhand region.
Geography of Jharkhand
Jharkhand is located in the eastern part of India bordering the states of Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, and Chattisgarh. Tropic of Cancer passes through Kanke, few kilometers away from Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand, making it the only state in India touched by Tropic of Cancer. Most of the Jharkhand region is part of Chotanagpur plateau, which also extends to some parts of West Bengal, Chattisgarh, and Orissa. This region is made up of ancient stone Arkiyan Granite Tatanis.
Brief History of Jharkhand
Jharkhand share its history with Bihar and was part of the great empires of Nandas, Mauryas, Sungas and Guptas. In the 13th century, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand. However, during the medieval period, Jharkhand rarely enjoyed the status of an independent state; rather it swayed with the fortunes of Delhi, Jaunpur and Bengal. For a long time, Jharkhand was remained as a part of Bihar, but after Indian independence, the demand for a separate state of tribals started gaining momentum. Jharkhand became a state under the Republic of India on November 15, 2000 and now it is poised for a great leap forward.
Districts of Jharkhand
The state was formed with 18 districts, which were formerly part of Bihar. Some of these districts were reorganized to form 4 new districts, namely, Latehar, Saraikela Kharsawan, Jamtara and Sahebgunj. Presently, the state has 22 districts Districts: Ranchi, Lohardaga, Gumla district, Simdega, Palamu, Latehar, Garhwa, West Singhbhum, Seraikela Kharsawan, East Singhbhum, Dumka, Jamtara, Sahebganj, Pakur, Godda, Hazaribagh, Chatra, Koderma, Giridih, Dhanbad, Bokaro & Deoghar,
Born out of partition from old Bihar state in 2000, Jharkhand produces about 40% of the output of the old Bihar state. Being rich in minerals, the state is one the most industrialized regions of the country today. The region accounts for 35.5% of the country's known coal reserves, 90% of its cooking coal deposits, 40% of its copper, 22% of its iron ore, 90% of its mica and huge deposits of bauxite, quartz and ceramics. It is home to the largest steel plant in Bokaro, apart from Jamshedpur being practically the city of TISCO and TELCO. There are other important companies such as HEC in Ranchi and MECON in Ranchi, which are contributing to the growth of the state. Agriculture was never the mainstay of economy in the region of Jharkhand but almost 80% of the population in this mineral-rich state is dependent on agriculture. Rice is the major crop in the state with pulses and wheat being the other ones. The state is focusing on increasing the land under cultivation, development of the irrigation facilities, and development of agriculture-related business.
Travel Information of Jharkhand
Ranchi, the capital city of state has its old world colonial charm even now. On the outskirts of Ranchi lies the famous Tagore Hill, named after Rabindranath Tagore who is believed to have written a part of his famous Gitanjali here, besides other poems. At the other end of Ranchi is the Kanke Dam, which is ever crowded with tourists. A few kilometers from the dam is the 17th century Jagannath Temple where the annual Ratha Yatra is held in the month of June/July. On Ranchi - Hazaribagh road is the War Cemetery, which is the smallest ‘concentration’ cemetery in India with a total of 708 burials, which includes a soldier of the army of undivided India, besides various other countrymen who fought for the British cause. The graves are well classified and all of them deserve attention for their appealing epitaphs. Mc Cluskieganj is a small village near Ranch. It evokes nostalgia and one gradually discovers that the place was once popular with the Anglo-Indian community. Filmmakers have taken note not only of the spectacular natural beauty, clean air and extravagant greenery, but also of the village itself, a heady mix of the untamed and the sophisticated. Some of the houses here have retained their English names together with the epitaph of ‘haunted house’. During the 1950s, there were no less than 100 Anglo Indian families with their typical cottages, clubs and shops. There are many other destinations worth a visit such as Betla National Park (Palamau), Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary, Netarhat, Rajrappa, Parasnath, Deoghar.
Rivers of Jharkhand
The principal rivers are the Damodar, the Suvarnarekha, the Barakar and the Koel.
Education in Jharkhand
The literacy rate of Jharkhand is 54.13% according to census in 2001. Jharkhand has a network of government and privately run schools, although standards of teaching vary considerably from place to place, as also from school to school. It has some of the best schools in country, namely DAV Shyamali, Ranchi, DPS Ranchi, Denobli Sindri, Denobili School, Mugma, Dhanbad, Loyola School, Jamshedpur and Little Flower School, Jamshedpur. Jharkhand has 7 Universities: Ranchi University, Ranchi; Sidhhu Kanhu University, Dumka; Binova Bhave University, Hazaribagh; Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi; Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur and the Indian School Of Mines, Dhanbad. There are three medical colleges in Jharkhand namely Rajendra Institute Of Medical Sciences (RIMS) at Ranchi, M.G.M. Medical College Jamshedpur and Patliputra Medical College And Hospital (PMCH) at Dhanbad. The famous business school Xavier Labour Relations Institute (XLRI) is at Jamshedpur.
Rice is the most important part of any meal in the Jharkhand while pulses and vegetables add immense value to it. Bread is generally taken at the time of dinner with pulses and vegetables again. Tribal population makes their own local brew Hanria, made of rice that has a hard smell. Initially tribes of this region were more into hunting and wild animals, but nowadays most of them are into agriculture and hunting is limited to a very small segment of the population.
Arts & Culture of Jharkhand
Jharkhand is home to several tribes. They not only differ considerably from the non-tribal population but from one another as well. The most ancient among them are the Mundas, while the Santhals were the last of the tribes to settle in Jharkhand. Unlike the dark brown or almost black complexion of most of the aboriginals, Cheros are light brown and bear Dravidian physiognomy, as they appear to have migrated from the sub-Himalayan tract. Other tribes are Hos, Oraon, Karias, Birhors, Sauria, Paharias, Mal Paharias, Birjias, Asurs, Bhumijs, etc.
The tribal society of Jharkhand has rich tradition of arts and crafts that is quite visible in the rock paintings of this region that dates back to more than 5000 years. The best place to experience the arts and craft traditions of this state is Tribal Research Institute and Museum at Ranchi. The tribes of Jharkhand are expert in making plates made up of Sal leaves joined together by tiny sticks. You can also have a taste of local brews like Mahua and Hanaria that flow like water in this region.
Dance & Music of Jharkhand
Dance and music are integral part of tribal life in Jharkhand. Every festival for the tribes in this state is an opportunity to enjoy with music and dance going on continuously and without any hindrances. Most of the community dance and music takes place on the occasion of Sarhul, the most important tribal festivals. For community dance and music celebrations, a large expanse of land is left in most of the villages.
Festivals of Jharkhand
Sarhul is the most important festival of all the tribes in Jharkhand, though the way to celebrate the festival is slightly different from one to another. Sarhul, which also means Sal tree blossom, makes the tribal communities worship the tree of Sal to seek the blessings of their spirits. The festival is marked by extensive dance and music programs and unhindered drinking of Hanria (a local brew made of rice). Mukka Sendra is another festival that is celebrated just ones in every twelve years by Oraon women. During this festival, women of the tribe wear all the male cloths and gears and explore the entire region to hunt for animals. The hunting process continues for entire day and they can kill any animal whether it is a pet or wild one.
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