New Delhi, Dec 28 : Delhi/NCR has been hit by a severe cold wave. The temperature is expected to drop further in the coming days. Dr Tarun Sahni, Senior Consultant, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals elaborates on quick tips to bear with the dropping temperatures.
During winters, the body heat usually experiences a drop as the environment cools. At the same time, the body is adjusting to the new climate. As a result, the change in the process is demonstrated through a number of diseases. Adults as well as children are very susceptible to the change in climate.
Winter diseases affecting children
**Flu , common cold and fever
Causes Kids with low immunity are generally being affected due to change in weather or exposure to an infected individual's cough.
Symptoms One will have fever, stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, chesty cough, headache, aches and pains, and fatigue.
Treatment it is recommended not to use over the counter medication since many people are reactive to few components. Hence, always consult a doctor before taking any medicines.
Causes Eating anything cold, virus or bacteria in the air.
Symptoms Irritation of the throat, pain in the throat, enlarged tonsils, unable to gulp food or liquids.
Treatment Gargle with warm water with a hint of salt. Consult a doctor.
Causes It most commonly is caused by a viral infection and is spread from person to person when coming in direct contact with nose and throat fluids of someone carrying the virus.
Symptoms It is a swelling and mucus build-up within the smallest lung air passages.
Treatment Consult a doctor.
Causes Infected water and food and unclean hands.
Symptoms Abdominal pain, diarrhea, excessive flatulence, vomiting, and fever.
Treatment Consult a doctor. Make sure the child is well hydrated with a lot of liquids.**Chicken Pox
Causes Infection in the air, direct contact with an infected individual.
Symptoms Chickenpox is one of the most contagious diseases in the world. The child will have bumps/ blisters that are itchy and contagious, rashes.
Treatment If it is detected at an early stage, light medications can help treat this. Avoid itching and keep all daily clothes and items used by the infected kid separate. Always consult a doctor.
**Acute Ear Infection
Causes Excessive cold may result into an acute ear infection. Another cause of bacterial ear infection is due to moisture in the ear.
Symptoms This leads to ear pain, blocked ears, itchy Ears. An ear infection can occur even overnight, so it is best to identify it at the earliest.
Treatment Ear infection can be painful so it is best to see a doctor.
Winter affecting adults
**Coughs and croup
Causes Winter also brings with it a lot of dust, dryness and cold winds. This adds to cough symptoms. Having warm beverages of extreme temperatures also triggers a throat infection.
Symptoms The croup cough often is described as "barking" or "like a seal" and is quite loud.
Treatment People with mild and moderate croup can usually be easily treated with nebulized treatments and steroids. Consult a doctor before starting any self-treatment.
Causes Re-warming of cold skin can cause small blood vessels under the skin to expand more quickly than nearby larger blood vessels can handle.
Symptoms Signs chilblains are itching, red patches, swelling and blistering on your hands and feet.
Treatment Treatment involves protecting yourself from the cold and using lotions to ease the symptoms. The condition can lead to infection, which may cause severe damage if left untreated.
Causes The main source of infection is inhaling droplets with the concerned organism exhaled by already infected people. The cold and dry air leads to tightening of airways and makes it even worse while breathing.
Symptoms Individuals suffering from respiratory conditions, such as asthma or COPD, may find it increasingly difficult to breathe during extreme cold temperatures and conditions worsen.
Treatment Keep inhaler handy and see a doctor immediately in case of an emergency.
Causes Winters is one of the prime seasons for heart attacks. As the temperature falls, the arteries become constricted making it difficult for the heart to pump the blood.
Symptoms most common heart attack symptom is chest pain or discomfort.
Treatment Doctor usually prescribes certain medication after proper diagnosis.
Causes Exposure to the cold has effects on the body ranging from increased blood pressure and constriction of blood vessels to the clotting tendency of platelets.
Symptoms Weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body. Loss of speech, vision and balance.
Treatment Stroke is a medical emergency and is best treated as quickly as possible.
Causes Any change in pressure, or the weight of the air pressing against the surface of the earth, can trigger joint pain.
Symptoms Flaring up of joint pains or increased pain in those who are having pre-existing joint conditions (arthritis).
Treatment Eating healthy, including foods containing omega-3-fatty acids, vitamin C iamp;K. Massaging the joints can reduce joint pain.
Causes Cold air is a major trigger of asthma symptoms, such as wheezing and shortness of breath.
Symptoms Asthma may cause difficulty breathing, chest pain, cough and wheezing. The symptoms may sometimes flare up.
Treatment People with asthma should be especially careful in winter. Stay indoors on very cold, windy days. If you do go out, wear a scarf over your nose and mouth. Be extra vigilant about taking your regular medications, and keep rescue inhalers close by and in a warm place.
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