Rory Burns (29) and Joe Denly (26) then tried to stabilise the innings with a 55-run partnership before Peter Siddle dismissed the latter, leaving the hosts at 64/3. Seven runs later, Sidle struck again, this time packing back Burns.
Stokes and Buttler, however, denied any Australia any further inroads, stitching together an unbeaten 86-run stand to steer England to 157/4 at Lunch.
Meanwhile, star Australia batsman Steve Smith was on Sunday ruled out of the remainder of the Lord's Test after being diagnosed with concussion caused by a blow to his neck from England seamer Jofra Archer on Day 4 on Saturday.
Smith was replaced by Marnus Labuschagne, who became Test cricket's first ever concussion substitute who can bat in Australia's second innings.
Smith woke up on Sunday morning with 'a bit of a headache and grogginess', said a statement issued by Cricket Australia (CA).
Smith was forced to retire on Saturday while batting on 80 after being hit by the Archer bouncer. However, he cleared a concussion test and returned to the crease before being dismissed for 92.
Brief scores England 258 and 157/4 (Ben Stokes 51 not out, Jos Buttler 31 not out; Peter Siddle 2/22) vs Australia 250.