Public Health Ministry spokesman Wahidullah Mayar confirmed the number of casualties to Efe news and said that the injured were admitted into hospitals and were receiving medical treatment.
Citing preliminary investigations, the Interior Ministry said that the bomb used was an improvised explosive device attached to a Toyota Corolla car.
A traffic policeman was among the dead, the Ministry said.
Faramarz said the police were on an alert and had received an intelligence input about a possible car bombing in Kabul. Two cars were also destroyed in the blast.
"Initial investigation shows the intended target was not the university. The security forces already had intelligence and the car was under hunt of the police and the attacker (was) forced to detonate it on the roadside. Otherwise, the attack could have been deadlier," he said.
No group claimed responsibility for the attack.
Friday's attack comes after the Afghanistan government's recent statement about progress in a peace conference between Taliban insurgents and Afghan representatives in Qatar.