He said India has been complaining that Pakistan is sponsoring acts of terrorism against India and that one third of Jammu and Kashmir was under its illegal possession.
"Where does India need to change its behaviour. What is it that India has done that we must change our behaviour," he asked.
Chidambaram had said at event here on Sunday that to bring a change in Pakistan's behaviour, India must also change its behaviour towards the Western neighbour.
However, after Jaitley's remarks Chidambaram hit back at the BJP leader through tweets.
"Mr Arun Jaitley should read the Congress' Manifesto which says 'we promise an uncompromising approach and hard measures to put an end to terrorism and to the infiltration of militants.' Will Mr Jaitley please explain why infiltration, number of infiltrators and number of casualties (civilian and security forces) in 2018 are the highest under the BJP government?"
Chidambaram also asked why Prime Minsiter Narendra Modi was "becoming shriller by the day".
"PM's threat to use the nuclear option is the most extraordinary statement of this election," he said.