Hardline protesters chanted 'Death to America' after Rouhani's historic call with US President Barack Obama.
During his trip, Rouhani had signalled a shift in tone on Iran's controversial nuclear programme.
This culminated in a phone call with Obama - the first such top-level conversation in 30 years, the BBC reports.
Hundreds of people gathered at Tehran airport, with supporters hailing the trip and opponents throwing shoes.
According to the report, the protesters are angry at the prospect of a detente between Tehran and Washington, which they see as contrary to the principles of the Islamic Revolution.
Rouhani, who is regarded as a moderate and was elected in June, has said he wants to reach a deal over the nuclear issue in three to six months.
He has also asserted that Iran does not seek a nuclear bomb, as Western powers have long suspected.
--ANI (Posted on 29-09-2013)