How alcohol consumption ups risk of chronic pancreatitis
A new study has found a genetic link between chronic pancreatitis and alcohol consumption.
Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and more than 25 other health centers across the United States found a genetic variant on chromosome X near the claudin-2 gene (CLDN2) that predicts which men who are heavy drinkers are at high risk of developing chronic pancreatitis.
"The discovery that chronic pancreatitis has a genetic basis solves a major mystery about why some people develop chronic pancreatitis and others do not," said David C. Whitcomb, M.D., professor of medicine, cell biology and physiology, and human genetics at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and lead author of the report.
"We also knew there was an unexpected higher risk of men developing pancreatitis with alcohol consumption, but until now we weren't sure why. Our discovery of this new genetic variant on chromosome X helps explain this mystery as well," he stated.
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease characterized by abdominal pain and permanent damage to the pancreas.
Most studies report excessive alcohol consumption as the major risk factor for adult-onset chronic pancreatitis. However, according to Dr. Whitcomb, who also is chief of the Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, only 3 percent of individuals who are alcoholics develop chronic pancreatitis, suggesting a pancreas-specific risk factor.
The study was conducted over 10 years and involved more than 2,000 patients, all of whom underwent DNA testing in a study funded by the National Institutes of Health. Researchers discovered that there was a common DNA variant on the X chromosome that is present in 26 percent of men without pancreatitis, but jumps to nearly 50 percent of men diagnosed with alcoholic pancreatitis.
Women have two X chromosomes, so most women with the high-risk DNA variant on one X chromosome appear to be protected from alcoholic chronic pancreatitis by the other X chromosome, if it is normal. Men have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, so if they inherit a high-risk X chromosome, there is no protection.
The factor on chromosome X does not appear to cause pancreatitis, but if pancreatic injury occurs for any reason such as gallstone pancreatitis or abdominal trauma, it is more likely that the person will develop chronic pancreatitis and #65533; especially if they also drink alcohol.
"This information is important because the high-risk chromosome can be identified in patients who drink and have early signs of pancreatic injury," said Dhiraj Yadav, M.D., M.P.H., associate professor of medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition at Pitt, and a co-investigator on the study.
"If pancreatic injury and acute pancreatitis occur, patients must stop drinking immediately," he suggested.
The study has been just published online in Nature Genetics.