Humans may be blamed for orangutans spending more time on the ground than trees
Orangutans come down from the trees and spend more time on the ground than previously realized, and this behaviour may be partly influenced by man, according to a new study.
Dr Mark Harrison, based in the Department of Geography at the University of Leicester and Managing Director of the Orangutan Tropical Peatland Project (OuTrop) has, along with international colleagues, published results of a seven year study of orangutans in Borneo.
The research, conducted between June 2006 and March 2013, is based on a large-scale analysis of orangutan terrestriality using comprehensive camera-trapping data from 16 sites across Borneo.
In total there were 641 independent orangutan records taken at 1,409 camera trap stations over 159,152 trap days.
The Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is the world's largest arboreal (tree-dwelling) mammal. Records of terrestrial behaviour are rare and tend to be associated with habitat disturbance.
"We've known for some time that orangutans use the ground to travel and search for food, but the influence of anthropogenic disturbances in driving this behaviour has been unclear. This is crucial to understand in this age of rampant forest loss and fragmentation, which is slicing up the orangutan's jungle home," Marc Ancrenaz, from the HUTAN / Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Programme in Malaysia, and colleagues conducted the study. Dr Harrison, said.
"We found that although the degree of forest disturbance and canopy gap size influenced terrestriality, orangutans were recorded on the ground as often in heavily degraded habitats as in primary forests.
"All age-sex classes were recorded on the ground, but flanged males - those with distinctive cheek pads and throat pouches - travel on the ground more. This suggests that terrestrial locomotion is a greater part of the Bornean orangutan's natural behavioural repertoire than previously understood and is only modified by habitat disturbance," he said.
Dr Harrison added: "The capacity of orangutans to come down from the trees may increase their ability to cope with at least smaller-scale forest fragmentation, and to cross moderately open spaces in mosaic landscapes, although the extent of this versatility remains to be investigated."
The authors report that more than 70 percent of orangutans occur in fragmented multiple-use and human-modified forests that have lost many of their original ecological characteristics.
Dr Harrison explained that increased terrestriality is expected to increase predation risk, interactions with and persecution by humans, and exposure to novel diseases. Unlike in Sumatra, where tigers are present, predation is less of a concern in Borneo, although infants might be at risk from bearded pigs and clouded leopards. In recent history, their biggest predator has been man, who is actually more likely to pick orangutans off in the trees: orang-utans make a lot of noise and so are very obvious in the trees, whereas they can move with almost no noise and so more easily get away on the ground.
The scientists report that terrestrial behaviour therefore could also facilitate movement and dispersal, especially in degraded or fragmented landscapes as a result of natural or man-made processes. This could also create new opportunities to access different food sources.
The study is published in the journal Scientific Reports.
(Posted on 14-02-2014)
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